不吃早餐減肥好?還是不吃晚餐減肥好?搞錯了可能越減越肥!

滬江英語2019-06-24 23:13:19

苗條,越來越成為現代人的剛需了。


錢包可以不飽,肉一定要少。


就連肥宅快樂水也慢慢被不含糖的健怡可樂取代了。



隨之而來各種各樣的減肥法和飲食法也越來越流行,而“間歇性節食”似乎是目前最流行的幾種之一。


由於這種方法比較温和,在特定時間內還能毫無顧忌大吃大喝,不會把人折騰死,所以越來越多的人開始踐行。



其中最主流的3種大概就是“5:2飲食法”、“隔日禁食法”和“限時進食”了。


但是,你真的確定這樣減肥OK嗎?這些減肥法的利弊你都清楚嗎?


來看一下科學家們的建議吧:


Read This Before You Try Any of These Intermittent Fasting Diets

你在嘗試任何間歇性節食法之前,請先讀一讀這篇文章


Intermittent fasting is a method of dieting that restricts the amount of time you are allowed to eat. The appeal of these diets is that you don't need to count calories or eat certain foods. But there are so many versions, it's hard to know which one is best. Here's what the research says.

這種飲食法的吸引力在於你不需要計算卡路里,也不需要吃某些特定的食物。但是這種方法有很多版本,很難知道哪一個是最好的。而科學研究是這樣講的:



The 5:2 diet

5:2飲食法


圖片來源:視覺中國


This is a popular version of intermittent fasting where you eat a very low calorie diet (about 500kcal) for two days each week (any two days). On the other five days, you eat as normal.

這是一種很流行的間歇性禁食,你每週兩天(任何兩天)吃低熱量飲食(約500kcal)。在其他五天,你正常吃。


Research has shown that it's possible to lose weight with this diet; it also improves several markers of health, such as reducing levels of glucose and cholesterol in the blood.

研究表明,這種飲食可以減肥;它還能提高好幾種健康指標,例如降低血液中葡萄糖和膽固醇的水平。


But the 5:2 diet is unlikely to be more effective for weight loss than traditional methods of dieting. This is because 5:2 reduces calorie intake to a similar extent as traditional dieting.

但與傳統節食方法相比,5:2飲食法不太可能對減肥更有效太多。這是因為5:2減少的卡路里攝入量,與傳統節食差不多。



There is some evidence that conducting the two days of very low calorie intake on consecutive days can improve insulin sensitivity – a risk marker for type 2 diabetes – to a greater extent than traditional dieting. This approach also leads to decreases in blood lipids (fatty substances found in the blood) compared with traditional dieting.

有證據表明,連續進行為期兩天的低卡路里攝入可以提高胰島素敏感性——這是2型糖尿病的風險標誌物——而且幅度比傳統節食更大。與傳統節食相比,這種方法還導致血脂(血液中存在的脂肪物質)的減少。


An important extra benefit of 5:2 is that you can consume some food during the "fasting" period, providing an opportunity to take in vital nutrients.

5:2有一個重要的額外好處,那就是你可以在“禁食”期間也可以吃一些食物,以此攝取一些重要的營養。


Dieting often leads to losses in muscle and bone mass, alongside fat mass because consuming a balanced diet while reducing calorie intake is difficult.

節食常常導致肌肉和骨量的減少,以及脂肪量的減少,因為在減少卡路里攝入的同時保持飲食均衡是很困難的。


This can compromise long-term weight loss efforts as muscle is more metabolically active (burns more calories) than fat. Eating enough protein can help to reduce the loss of muscle mass while dieting, with a bonus of reducing appetite.

這可能會影響長期減肥的效果,因為肌肉比脂肪更具代謝活性(燃燒更多卡路里)。食用足夠的蛋白質可以減輕節食期間的肌肉流失量,同時還能減少食慾。



Alternate-day fasting

隔日禁食法


圖片來源:視覺中國


While 5:2 could be considered a "lifestyle intervention", alternate-day fasting (ADF) is more likely to be used to lose weight quickly.

5:2可以被視為一種“生活方式干預”,而隔日禁食(ADF)更有可能讓你快速減肥。


ADF is often referred to as the "every other day diet" and requires you to alternate daily between unrestricted eating and consuming a very low calorie diet.

ADF通常被稱為“隔日飲食”,並且要求您每天在不受限制的飲食和極低卡路里飲食之間交替使用。



Most research on ADF uses a similar approach to 5:2, allowing a small meal (usually about 500kcal) to be consumed on "fasting" days.

大多數關於ADF的研究使用的方法和5:2飲食差不多,允許在“禁食”日消耗少量食物(通常約500kcal)。


Research has shown that ADF can lead to considerable weight loss in 8-12 weeks, but a big problem with ADF is that adherence tends to wane. Longer-term studies have shown that calorie intake on "fasting" days creeps up over time, which reduces the calorie deficit achieved and slows the rate of weight loss.

研究表明,ADF可在8-12周內導致相當大的體重減輕,但ADF的一個大問題是:節食者堅持的能力越來越弱。長期研究表明,“禁食”日的卡路里攝入量會隨着時間的推移而逐漸增加,因此卡路里缺口會變小,減肥的速度也會降低。



Randomised controlled trials (the gold standard of clinical research) show that ADF doesn't lead to more weight loss or improvements in health compared with traditional dieting when calorie intake is the same in both groups.

單一對照試驗(臨牀研究的黃金標準)表明,與傳統節食相比,當兩組的卡路里攝入量相同時,ADF不會導致更多的體重減輕或健康改善。


Despite this, it is likely that ADF will result in a greater reduction in calorie intake compared with traditional methods of dieting, which should lead to greater weight loss, initially. But it's doubtful that many people will adhere to ADF in the long term.

儘管如此,與傳統的節食方法相比,ADF確實能減少更多的卡路里,在初期會導致更大的體重減輕。但大部分人能不能堅持ADF,就值得懷疑了。



Time-restricted eating

限時進食


圖片來源:視覺中國


Time-restricted eating (TRE) involves complete fasting for long periods (16-20 hours) and consuming all calories within restricted hours, often referred to as "feeding windows".

限時進食(TRE)是指長時間(16-20小時)完全禁食並在限制時間內消耗所有卡路里,通常稱為“禁食窗口期”。


The most common version of TRE uses a ratio between fasting and eating of 16:8 (16 hours of fasting and eight hours during which it is permissible to eat). Many people achieve this ratio by skipping breakfast thereby delaying their first meal until midday and consuming all food between midday and 8 pm.

在最常見的TRE版本里,禁食和進食的比例為16:8(16小時禁食和8小時允許進食)。許多人通過不吃早餐來實現這一比例,將早餐延遲到中午,並在中午和晚上8點之間消費所有食物。



Research has shown that calorie intake over a 24-hour period is reduced when people skip breakfast. But the number of calories expended through physical activity is also reduced, which will partially or completely negate the calorie deficit achieved by skipping breakfast.

研究表明,當人們不吃早餐時,24小時內的卡路里攝入量會減少。但是通過體力活動消耗的卡路里數量也減少了,而這將部分或完全抵消不吃早餐導致的卡路里缺口。


So skipping breakfast is unlikely to lead to meaningful weight loss. Skipping breakfast also reduces the effectiveness of insulin to regulate blood glucose levels after lunch, indicating a negative effect on insulin sensitivity.

所以不吃早餐不太可能導致有效的減肥。不吃早餐也會降低午餐後胰島素調節血糖水平的效果,這表明它對胰島素敏感性有負面影響。


But an alternative approach to TRE has shown promise. A recent study found that fasting from 2 pm improved insulin sensitivity in a group of pre-diabetic males. This could be due to an enhanced natural ability to regulate blood glucose levels effectively in the morning, due to daily variations in metabolism.

最近的一項研究發現,從下午2點開始禁食改善了一組糖尿病前期男性的胰島素敏感性。這可能是由於早晨調節血糖水平的天然能力增強,是因為新陳代謝的日常變化。


So, restricting food intake to a morning feeding window and fasting in the evening may be a healthier version of TRE.

因此,早上禁食、晚上節食可能才是更健康的TRE版本。



And the winner is…

那麼,最終獲勝者是...



As with any diet, success will be dictated mostly by adherence. When it comes to weight loss, ADF is likely to lead to the most rapid success, but sustaining weight loss in the long term may be aided by the less intense 5:2 approach.

與任何飲食一樣,成功主要取決於堅持。在減肥方面,ADF能最快帶來效果,但長期的減肥可能需要靠強度稍弱的5:2來達到。


There is some evidence that adherence could be greater in TRE, as completely restricting food intake may be easier for some people than severely restricting it.

有一些證據表明TRE更容易堅持,因為完全限制食物攝入對某些人來説可能比嚴格限制食物更容易。


In this sense, research suggests that skipping dinner may be better for health than skipping breakfast.

從這個意義上講,研究表明,跳過晚餐可能比跳過早餐更好。


It's important to note that most research suggests that intermittent fasting is no better than traditional methods of dieting.

有一點很重要的需要注意,那就是很多研究都表明間歇性節食並不比傳統節食更有效。


But intermittent fasting regimens that have prolonged periods of fasting, such as TRE with shorter feeding windows and 5:2 with two consecutive very low calorie days, may provide additional health benefits.

但那些倡導長時間禁食的間歇金施法,比如窗口期較短的TRE和連續兩天只攝入極少卡路里的5:2飲食法可能可以帶來額外的健康益處。


編輯:梅園西牆的王半仙



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