初體驗 | CATTI一級筆譯題型詳解,別小看時間分配

翻譯天堂2019-04-13 19:29:44


這個週日,我參加了一級筆譯,對於一個跌跌撞撞考過CATTI二級筆譯的菜鳥來説,本次去就是見一下傳説中一級筆譯的真面目。雖説是去漲見識,也不敢奢望能通過考試,但我還是很認真地對待。去的時候,用行李箱拉着陸谷孫老師和惠宇老師的大詞典!


CATTI一級筆譯考試下午兩點開始,時長三個小時,總共有英譯中、中譯英和審校三大題。其中審校又分為英中審校和中英審校。



第一題是英譯漢翻譯,感覺和二級筆譯沒什麼區別,題量也沒有傳説中的那麼大(無知者無畏啊,捂臉)


英譯漢題源:

Diversity in publishing – stillhideously middle-class and white?


原文地址:

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/09/diversity-publishing-new-faces#img-1


題源比較長,CATTI考試試題對其做了刪減,以下是試題部分。我是倒着做的題,所以這部分是最後做的,為此犯了一個很大的錯誤,等下説。雖然拿着尚方寶劍——陸谷孫大詞典,下面這些出版社還是沒查到:Penguin Random House(企鵝蘭登書屋)、HarperCollins(哈珀柯林斯)、Hachette(阿歇特出版公司)。此次考試使我感受到了考場的森森惡意,並且打破了我對陸谷孫大詞典的盲目崇拜!

In December 2015, British publishing stood accused of woeful blindness to diversity, and not for the first time, after World Book Night (WBN) announced its titles, and none of the 15 books was by a writer of colour. An apology was issued by organisers but a wider malaise had already set in, and along with it, the troubling feeling that WBN’s oversight was less an isolated incident and more a recurring pattern of exclusion that stretched across the literary establishment.


A report on the state of the books industry had been published earlier that year, which drew attention to how intransigently white, middle-class, male it remained, from literary festivals and prizes to publications and personnel. The industry has been announcing strategies for change since 2015. Publishing houses have rolled out paid internships, mentoring schemes and traineeships to attract socially under-represented and BAME (Black, Asian,  ethnic minority) applicants on an unprecedented scale, as well as creating opportunities for women to move into boardrooms. To name a few recent initiatives: Penguin Random House is offering interest-free rent loans to draw more applicants from outside London, and has set a company goal “for all new hires and the books we acquire to reflect UK society by 2025 in terms of social mobility, ethnicity, gender, disability, and sexuality”. HarperCollins is launching programmes for BAME employees and those taking long-term parental leave, while Hachette is encouraging diversity at an executive level in a mentoring scheme with board members. Some schemes show promising signs. Penguin Random House connects aspiring writers from socially excluded communities to agents and editors, helping to demystify these professions. 


It appears to be a turning point for British publishing, and yet those who have been around for long enough feel a profound sense of disappointment, not least because there have been mentorship schemes and initiatives before, yet the industry has always failed to maintain the diversity it has achieved. And where some publishers continue to reach for “schemes” or blame blockages elsewhere in the pipeline, independent publishers have long been weaving inclusivity into their lists without the need for formal targets or traineeships.


Margaret Busby, the writer and pioneering publisher, regards the endeavour for better representation in publishing as a struggle begun decades ago. Mainstream publishing, she says, is too institutionalised in its biases to be corrected by a few new authors or schemes. In the 1980s she helped to found a group that campaigned to diversify the industry. An article she wrote in 1988 posed questions that are still being asked today, such as: “What are publishers doing to make their companies a more accurate reflection of their lists, readers and society?” “What’s happening now is more initiatives,” Busby says. “But the problem can’t be solved with initiatives.” 


There is overwhelming agreement among excluded communities that systemic change can only happen when inclusivity is filtered upwards. There is not yet gender parity on boards, even though women outnumber men in the industry; a lack of social diversity is one of its most stubborn problems.



第二題是漢譯英,關於中國商用飛機有限責任公司的簡介,非常短。剛看到題時有點懵,公司簡介不是三級筆譯的標配嗎?還以為自己走錯考場了。


看了試題,感覺只要練習過政府工作報告,這些句型肯定難不倒大家,只是各種專業術語,可能需要查詞典確認一下。很多次我腦海裏的第一答案都是對的,但是總不太確定,結果就是一直查查查,時間沒了……所以考場上還是要果斷一點兒,眼熟的詞別怕錯,先寫了,有時間再確定。


考題略有刪減,以下是考試部分。


中國商飛官網簡介:

http://www.comac.cc/gk/


中國商飛官網英文版:

http://english.comac.cc/aboutus/introduction/

公司是經國務院批准成立,由國家控股的有限責任公司。公司重點實施國家大型客機項目,統籌幹線飛機支線飛機發展、實現我國民用飛機產業化,主要從事民用飛機及相關產品的科研、生產、試驗試飛,從事民用飛機銷售及服務、租賃和運營等相關業務。

COMAC is a state-owned limited liability company, which is formed with the approval of the State Council. Our company focuses on implementing large passenger aircraft programs in China. It is also mandated with the overall planning of developing trunk liner and regional jet programs and realizing the industrialization of civil aircraft in China. Our company is engaged in the research, manufacture and flight tests of civil aircraft and related products, as well as marketing, servicing, leasing and operations of civil aircraft. 


公司按照現代企業制度組建和運營,重點加強飛機研發設計、總裝製造、市場營銷、客户服務、適航取證和供應商管理等能力,堅持中國特色,體現技術進步,走市場化、集成化、產業化、國際化的發展道路,將全力打造更加安全、經濟、舒適、環保的大型客機。

Our company is formed and operated according to the standards of modern enterprise system, focusing on aircraft design, final assembly, manufacturing, marketing, customer service, airworthiness certification, and supplier management. COMAC adheres to the principle of "development with Chinese characteristics" and attaches great importance to technological progress and self-reliant advancement in the process of marketing, integration, industrialization and globalization. The company endeavors to manufacture large passenger aircraft that are safer, cost-effective, comfortable and environment-friendly. 


大型客機是一個國家工業、科技水平的綜合實力的集中體現。公司作為世界民機大家庭的成員,將與客户、合作伙伴攜手合作,致力於為客户提供更加安全、經濟、舒適、環保的民用飛機,使更多的人享受航空科技成果,使人類進入一個安全性水平更高、飛行風險更低的新時代。

Large passenger aircraft is the embodiment the nation’s industrial and technological standing as well as the comprehensive power. As a member in the big family of world civil aircraft, COMAC will work together with customers and cooperative partners to deliver safer, cost-effective, comfortable and environment-friendly civil aircraft, help more people benefit from the achievements of aviation science and technology, make human enter a new era with higher safety and lower risk in flight, i.e. a new era of "harmonious coexistence of men and blue sky". 



第三道答題就是英漢和漢英審定,分別給出原文和譯文,找出譯文中十處錯誤的地方。要把錯誤處和修改後的答案都抄在答題卡上。答題卡類似這種:


1、錯誤:並且掌握了美國可投資資產的39%  

改為:也就是掌握了美國可投資資產的39%


英譯漢的原文是Algorithmic bias: a new fintech challenge沒找到譯文,會標出來某一段有幾個錯誤。


感覺進行對照審校之前,可以先瀏覽一遍譯文,譯文中可能會有不符合常理、句子不完整和語法怪異的地方,劃出來,這些很可能是錯誤點。比如這一次譯文中有一個“據世界銀行,”,一看就是缺詞了,按照常識來説,應該是“據世界銀行分析”或者“世界銀行的數據顯示”之類的。對照原文看,果然如此。


原文地址:

https://qz.com/1121150/algorithmic-bias-a-new-fintech-challenge

It’s hard to make claim that technology hasn’t improved many facets of our everyday lives. Ordering lunch, calling a cab, and even managing your finances can be done instantly with a smart phone. The unique algorithms powering these applications have found a way to process information more effectively, replacing error-prone human judgement in the decision making process. Technology has seemingly reached a point where people blindly trust these unfamiliar algorithms to provide solutions to a range of problems both trivial and major. That dispassionate technology is weighing in on complex issues may not concern some, but a growing body of evidence suggests algorithms exhibit similar biases as humans.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)


Instead of replacing flawed human intuition, these tools have been shown to reinforce some existing biases that afflict disadvantaged groups. This rings true in financial services where digital services continue to breach traditional banking strongholds. Despite improving the number of global unbanked by 5% between 2011 and 2014, the global gender gap in account ownership remained unchanged at 7% over the same 3 year period, according to the World Bank. The disparity widens to 9% in developing countries, as women often face disproportionately higher hurdles to financial independence.(翻譯中存在2處錯誤)


Part of the problem is that the complex mathematical models behind today’s algorithms aren’t all held to the same ethical standard. It happens that a large proportion of software development and oversight is done by men. Though perhaps unintentional, the potential for products to inadvertently adopt some bias or emotion increases.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)


The algorithms behind online lenders, for instance, exhibit much of the same gender biases as traditional lenders. These new lending platforms are pulling in all kinds of alternative data such as purchase and browsing history, on top of conventional requirements of income, education, and residence, to determine borrower’s creditworthiness. Many of these determinants regularly favor men despite a growing body of research that proves women tend to save more and make more on-time loan payments.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)


As a result, women entrepreneurs still receive fewer and smaller business loans with higher interests rates compared to men. This disparity in financing denies women an opportunity to make an equal contribution to economic growth.(翻譯中存在2處錯誤)


Of course, as finance and technology companies look to expand, it would be unwise to go on ignoring potential human biases. As women increase their role as financial decision makers, this rings particularly true: Today women in the United States exercise control over $11 trillion, or 39% of the country’s investable assets.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)

 

One possible solution would be to make these tools more transparent, though, for many fintech companies, moving to an open source model means losing their competitive advantage. In some cases, the tech has become so advanced that even the creators have trouble understanding the implications of a machine’s decisions, in which event women must play a greater role in the initial development process. Technology and software is often designed with a clear bias towards its male developers, therefore hiring women to lead product development teams would not necessarily help move the needle in the right direction.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)


Although it’s still difficult to eliminate bias altogether, designing diverse organizations with various races and genders increases awareness of these harsh realities. In fact, a recent report from Credit Suisse suggests having women involved in the early stages of a project helps to limit bias and create more inclusive products. For one thing, they can help design products that take into account the distinct financial needs and preferences of women. Generally, digital financial services tend to neglect women’s tendency to save, invest in their children and family, and develop a business.(翻譯中存在1處錯誤)


Recognizing the problem is a start, and as women’s economic influence grows around the world, success will depend on inclusive technologies that meet this vast untapped market. In doing so, we can move to lower the presence of bias in modern technology and unlock the potential $12 trillion economic opportunity achieving gender equality could deliver.


以下是漢譯英審校,沒找到待審校的英語譯文。第一段不全,應該是少了一句話。感覺漢英審校很難,比英譯漢麻煩多了,完全沒有頭緒。

全面建成小康社會,全面深化改革,全面依法治國,全面從嚴治黨的戰略。(翻譯中存在2處錯誤)


創新協調綠色開放共享發展。堅持創新發展,把創新擺在國家發展全局的核心位置。堅持協調發展,重點促進城鄉區域協調發展,促進經濟社會協調發展,促進新型工業化、信息化、城鎮化、農業現代化同步發展,在增強國家硬實力的同時注重提升國家軟實力,不斷增強發展整體性。堅持綠色發展,堅持節約資源、保護環境的基本國策。堅持開放發展,牢固樹立並切實貫徹開放發展理念,堅定不移地走開放發展之路,着力發展更高層次的開放型經濟,積極參與全球經濟治理和公共產品供給,提高我國在全球經濟治理中的制度性話語權,構建廣泛的利益共同體。堅持共享發展,牢固樹立並切實貫徹共享發展理念,堅持發展為了人民、發展依靠人民、發展成果由人民共享,讓全體人民朝着共同富裕方向穩步前進。(翻譯中存在8處錯誤)


因為層次不夠,所以對題目沒什麼感覺,就是覺得和二級筆譯差不多啊(大霧)。下面説説我的炮灰過程。


首先,民航這一塊平時沒有接觸,其實涉及的都是比較基礎的關鍵詞,平時但但凡平時有意識看一看這個領域,也不至於在考場上一直查單詞。平時看外網新聞也只是圍觀時事政治、經濟貿易和皇室八卦之類的,以後還是要各個欄目都閲讀了解。也不能只練習古文、政經、金融、文化旅遊等幾個翻譯領域。


其次呢,考試的時候要根據分值答題啊!拿到試卷之後,我在猶豫先做哪一部分,試卷題幹非常簡單,連分值都沒有,確定不了。那我感覺英譯中比較簡單,最後做也行。審校算是客觀題,做對了就給分,所以我決定倒着做,先做審校。兩篇審校用了一個小時,漢譯英用了一個小時,剛好還有一個小時做英譯漢。當時自己很高興,覺得時間分配很合理,結果最後漢譯英時間不夠了。其實我平時接觸過很多出版新聞翻譯,答案就在腦海瘋狂刷屏,結果最後一秒還在瘋狂寫寫寫,沒寫完……下考場之後,問了一下同來的兩位大神,據她們反應,英譯漢需要花1.5小時。所以要注意時間的分配。


這就是我的第一次一級筆譯炮灰之旅,希望大家有時間也去體驗一下,感覺在考場上,最能看清自己的知識缺陷和需要努力的方向。


https://hk.wxwenku.com/d/200063551