2018上半年CATTI 二級口、筆譯實務試題

翻譯天堂2019-04-13 19:29:40

CATTI二級筆譯考試試題


英譯中第一篇


Faculty shortage could thwart India's education dream


At one of the better colleges in India's capital, there is just one large room for 140 faculty members to sit and have a cup of tea or grade papers. "If even half show up, there aren't enough chairs," said Amin, a history professor there. "There is no other place to work. In this situation, how do you expect teachers to work?"


The lack of amenities for faculty members is not the only issue. After 30 years at Mary College, which is one of dozens administered by the University of Delhi, Ms. Amin makes the equivalent of $22,000 a year - less than half of what some of her better students will make in their first jobs. New opportunities offer not just more money for graduates but also mobility and flexibility, which are virtually unheard of for faculty at most of India's colleges and universities. 


All this means that India is facing a severe shortage of faculty members. But it is not just low pay and lack of facilities that are being blamed. According to a government report published last year, a massive expansion in higher education combined with a poor supply of PhD's, delays in recruitment and the lack of incentives to attract and nurture talent has led to a situation in which 40 percent of existing faculty positions remain vacant. The report's authors, mostly academics, found that if the shortfall is calculated using the class size recommended by the government, this figure jumps to 54 percent. All this means that India is facing a severe shortage of faculty members. But it is not just low pay and lack of facilities that are being blamed. According to a government report published last year, a massive expansion in higher education combined with a poor supply of PhD's, delays in recruitment and the lack of incentives to attract and nurture talent has led to a situation in which 40 percent of existing faculty positions remain vacant. The report's authors, mostly academics, found that if the shortfall is calculated using the class size recommended by the government, this figure jumps to 54 percent. 


 Experts say this is the clearest sign that India will fail to meet the goal set by the education minister, who has pledged to more than double the size of the country's higher education system by 2020. They say that while the ambition is laudable, the absence of a long-term strategy to develop faculty will ensure that India's education dream remains just that. 


Mr. Balakrishnan of Indian institute of technology in Delhi, meanwhile, was more optimistic. He felt India could enroll as much as 25 percent of eligible students in colleges and universities - about twice the current figure - by the end of this decade. "Tangible changes are happening," he said. "The debate that has happened in the last few years has taken people out of their comfort zones. There is more consensus across the board that we need to scale quality education."


英譯中第二篇(調整分段


Near Cambodia's Temple Ruins, a Devotion to Learning

Millions of tourists come here every year to visit the ancient ruins of Angkor Wat, an influx that has helped transform what once resembled a small, laid-back village into a thriving and cosmopolitan town with thumping nightlife and more than 10,000 hotel rooms. 


But the explosion of the tourism industry here has also done something less predictable. Siem Reap, which had no universities a decade ago, is now Cambodia’s second-largest hub for higher education, after the capital, Phnom Penh. The sons and daughters of impoverished rice farmers flock here to work as tour guides, receptionists, bartenders and waitresses. 


When their shifts are over, they study finance, English and accounting.“ The establishment of five private universities here is helping to transform the work force in this part of Cambodia.Employers say that English proficiency is rising and that workers who attend universities stand out for their ability to express themselves and make decisions. 


A generation of students who would otherwise have had little hope to study beyond high school are enduring grueling schedules to get a degree and pursue their dreams.Khim Borin, a 26-year-old tour guide by day and law student by night, says he wants to become a lawyer. But he sometimes has trouble staying awake in class during the high tourist season, when he spends hours scaling vertiginous temple steps and baking in the tropical sun. There was no master help plan worIk and life. It was driven largely by supply and demand: universities opened to cater to the dreams of Cambodia’s youth.


After graduation, students who work and study at the same time often have an edge over fresh graduates who have never worked before, for whom starting a career can be difficult, Ms. Chan and others say. University students are “more communicative,” she said. “If they don’t like something, they speak out.” Ms. Chan and others say they are lucky that Angkor’s temples have proved so popular with tourists. If it were not for the sandstone structures nestled in the jungles, Siem Reap would probably have remained a backwater. Last year, 3.3 million tourists visited Siem Reap, half of them foreigners, according to the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism.


中譯英第一篇


來源:《推動共建絲綢之路經濟帶和21世紀海上絲綢之路的願景與行動》

Full text: Vision and actions on jointly building Belt and Road

http://www.china.org.cn/chinese/2015-09/15/content_36591064.htm


2000多年前,亞歐大陸上勤勞勇敢的人民,探索出多條連接亞歐非幾大文明的貿易和人文交流通路,後人將其統稱為“絲綢之路”。千百年來,“和平合作、開放包容、互利共贏”的絲綢之路精神薪火相傳,推進了人類文明進步,促進了沿線各國繁榮發展。進入21世紀,面對復甦乏力的全球經濟形勢,紛繁複雜的國際和地區局面,傳承和弘揚絲綢之路精神更顯重要。

“一帶一路”建設是一項系統工程,要堅持共商、共建、共享原則,積極推進沿線國家發展戰略的相互對接。“一帶一路”致力於亞歐非大陸及附近海洋的互聯互通,建立和加強沿線各國互聯互通夥伴關係,構建全方位、多層次、複合型的互聯互通網絡,實現沿線各國多元、自主、平衡、可持續的發展。“一帶一路”的互聯互通項目將推動沿線各國發展戰略的對接與耦合,發掘區域內市場的潛力,促進投資和消費,創造需求和就業,增進沿線各國人民的人文交流。


參考譯文:


More than two millennia ago the diligent and courageous people of Eurasia explored and opened up several routes of trade and cultural exchanges that linked the major civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa, collectively called the Silk Road by later generations. 


For thousands of years, the Silk Road Spirit - "peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit" - has been passed from generation to generation, promoted the progress of human civilization, and contributed greatly to the prosperity and development of the countries along the Silk Road. Symbolizing communication and cooperation between the East and the West, the Silk Road Spirit is a historic and cultural heritage shared by all countries around the world.


The Belt and Road Initiative is a systematic project, which should be jointly built through consultation to meet the interests of all, and efforts should be made to integrate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road. The Chinese government has drafted and published the Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road to promote the implementation of the Initiative, instill vigor and vitality into the ancient Silk Road, connect Asian, European and African countries more closely and promote mutually beneficial cooperation to a new high and in new forms.


The Belt and Road Initiative aims to promote the connectivity of Asian, European and African continents and their adjacent seas, establish and strengthen partnerships among the countries along the Belt and Road, set up all-dimensional, multitiered and composite connectivity networks, and realize diversified, independent, balanced and sustainable development in these countries. The connectivity projects of the Initiative will help align and coordinate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road, tap market potential in this region, promote investment and consumption, create demands and job opportunities, enhance people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and mutual learning among the peoples of the relevant countries, and enable them to understand, trust and respect each other and live in harmony, peace and prosperity.


中譯英第二篇


2006年,中國一個三口之家的碳排放量平均為2.7噸。目前,這一數字已升至3.5噸。而在北京、上海、廣州等大城市,每個家庭的平均碳排放量已接近10噸。碳匯(carbon sink)主要是指森林吸收並儲存二氧化碳的能力。森林是陸地生態系統中最大的碳匯庫。在降低大氣中温室氣體濃度、減緩全球氣候變暖中具有十分重要的獨特作用。


據統計數字,每人每年只要種3棵樹,就可吸收個人當年排放的二氧化碳。目前,中國正在開展公眾可參加的碳匯林項目,如將建立四川大熊貓基地的熊貓匯林項目等。作為碳排放量大亨的一些企業也已行動起來,先後在全國十多個省區建碳匯林60多萬公頃。中國將推廣購買碳匯、種植碳匯林等行動,加快植樹造林步伐,增加森林碳匯功能。


CATTI口譯考試試題


Part 1 English to Chinese Interpreting


Passage 1 

你將聽到關於亞洲國家經濟增長的一篇講話。


Ladies and gentlemen, there are more than 95% of the Asian countries that are middle income countries, compared to less than 10% 20 years ago. Such dramatic change is due to the rapid economic growth of China, India, Indonesia and other Asian countries. Now the challenge that is faced by all the Asian countries largely in the middle income region is how to transition into high income economies. Many developing countries’ experience for the past 50 years has shown that, such transition is not easy. Brazil and Columbus has been at the middle income level for decades, but still not yet breakthrough. At the same time, Singapore has transitioned from the middle income level to high income level with only 25 years has also shown that this can be done. 


Investment in infrastructure is key to countries to follow through this transition. However, countries have to step up their efforts in productivity promotion, meaning that it’s half to make sure the good use of input instead of only focusing the amount of input. For the past 10 years productivity growth accounted for 30% of economic growth. Innovation is what needs to be promoted together with high-quality infrastructure as well as human capital. Innovation is getting more and more important as a country develops its economy. It helps with creating new products and more values in products, in turn will even further economic development and increase wage level. 


Higher quality of human capital means more scaled and more knowledgeable work force, which is the foundation of any economy. Enhancing the quality of human capital is going to boost growth and equity. A recent study has shown that 20% increase in human capital investment will lead to 3% of productivity growth and narrowing the income gap by 4%. Workers in middle income countries have an average of six years of schooling. That is why countries need to close such gap compared to 10 years of average schooling in high income countries. Quality of education is even more crucial. In math and science subjects 15 year old students in high income countries are doing much better than those in middle income countries. Students with strong abilities in reading writing and problem-solving are more likely to become the future innovators. Sorry also shows a direct relation between investments made in education and growth in GDP. 


Different countries prioritize different infrastructure. Low income countries often need to meet the basic needs such as water supply public health and transportation. Once countries develop even further they won’t need to focus on electricity and IT infrastructure. IT is a key driver to innovation because it helps create and spread knowledge. Middle income countries with more Internet users are more innovative than those without the internet. Increasing investment in IT is going to boost innovation and productivity. 


To encourage innovation and entrepreneurship, countries have to step up efforts in intellectual property protection as well as the rule of law, increased financing and created equal policies to boost competition. According to estimation, about US$26 trillion will be spent from 2016 to 2030 on infrastructure investment, in order to lower the impact of climate change. To meet this need, Asian countries need to carry out tax reform, change their economic structure and borrow prudently. But they tend to face a founding shortage anyway. That is why Asian countries have to attract more private investment and build a better investment environment - working with private investors and offer a higher return. To conclude, I believe Asian countries have come so far so quickly, The promotion of human capital to achieve sustained growth can be done. That is going to be the natural next step for us. 


Passage 2

人工智能發展方向


Today I would like to talk about technology and where technology is going. The major trend for technology is that it is getting smarter and smarter, which I call artificial intelligence, AI. The use of AI includes robots that are going to undertake a lot of the tasks that human used to do. It is going to redefine jobs and create more tasks that we had no idea exist. This is going to bring drastic changes to society for the next 20 years. 


Of course we already have AI right now and they are working at the back offices. AIs   have eyes in the hospital diagnosing X-rays better than human doctors. AIs have eyes at the back offices of law firms processing legal evidence better than human lawyers. For pilots they only work for 7 to 8 minutes when flying a plane because AI is doing the rest of the work. We also have Amazon and Alibaba that provide smart recommendations with AIs at the back offices. AlphaGo also defeated the world’s Go champion. When we play video games we are playing against AIs. Now what Google is doing is trying to teach AIs how to play video games. And with such learning mechanisms, AI was getting smarter and smarter. 


There are two aspects that is not truly appreciated by humans. The first is that humans do not really understand the concept of intelligence. Humans tend to have the single dimensional understanding, thinking that IQ is the only way of showing intelligence. For example a rat is the least smart, a monkey is better. Then an average person such as me as smarter than a monkey but not smarter than a genius. Such understanding of intelligence is completely wrong. Human intelligence is like a symphony, in fact, it’s like different instruments playing together. 


Secondly, AI was the technology leading the second industrial revolution. First industrial revolution relied on artificial force.  Before the agricultural revolution, all work was done by human muscle or animal force. It is extremely important that during the first agriculture revolution we utilized steam and fossil fuels to power productivity. That is why when we drive a car today it is using the force of 2500 horses, that is, 2500 horse power. Artificial force is what helps us to build sky scrapers and produce massive products in factories that cannot be done by humans. 


Artificial forces can also go through wires and grid, Connecting homes, factories, and farmlands, that is offered to everyone to buy. And the smartness of artificial intelligence is multiplied by 1 million times powers the Second Industrial Revolution. That is why the cars on the highway with 2500 horsepower is going to be automated in the future. And AI will be developed, just as electricity to the grid, on the cloud. 


Part 2  Chinese to English Interpreting 


Passage 1

中國新四大發明


2000年前,中國發明瞭指南針、火藥、造紙術、以及印刷術,這四大發明推動了人類文明的進步。自改革開放以來,世界也在見證着中國的高速發展和變化,並出現了新的四大發明——高鐵、手機支付、共享單車以及網上購物。


中國的高鐵正處於世界的領先地位,中國僅用了10年的時間,高鐵網絡便已覆蓋全國,橫跨長度達2.2萬公里,佔世界高鐵總長度的65%。從首都北京到最大的都市上海,高鐵長達1300公里,時速350公里,票價僅僅相當於70歐元,這深刻的改變了中國人們的出行方式。


在中國,不論身處何方,都可以運用手機進行支付,給人們的生活帶來了巨大的便利。無論是打車、購物還是看電影,都可以用手機支付。目前,中國已經有四億人口在使用手機支付,交易金額高達5.5萬億元。中國已經逐漸進入了無現金社會,並且在技術處於世界各國當中的最先進水平。


近幾年來,共享單車發展迅猛。無論是大小城市任何角落,你都可以看到共享單車的身影。可以在任意地點使用,並在任意地點歸還。只要下載手機客户端,就可以解鎖單車,並且可以用手機進行支付。共享單車的出現有更好的促進人們健康出行。


網上購物你改變了人們的購物方式。如今在中國有5億人口在網上進行購物,貿易量達27萬億,佔全球電商貿易額的40%。購買的商品將會在當天或者是第二天送達。網上購物的興起刺激了消費,成為了中國經濟發展的主要動力之一。中國為什麼會出現新的四大發明呢?答案很簡單,就是創新。中國政府正在大力鼓勵企業創新,給予多方面的支持。過幾年各位再一次來到中國的時候,我相信一定會看到中國的更多發明。


Passage 2

新型全球化


對我而言,當今的全球化面臨着一個突出的問題,那就是包容性不足。在某些地區,自由貿易不僅具有歧視性,同時還具有排他性。現在我們必須要建立起開放包容的制度安排中國的一帶一路倡議,恰恰就是為這一問題貢獻中國智慧和中國力量,以此來更好地推動各國共同發展。


新型全球化旨在促進創新,並適應創新。全球經濟依賴工業革命和數字經濟的發展,因此各個國家應注重對技術革命方面的培訓。在發展中更好的提供支持援助以及技術轉讓,幫助貧困國家更好的縮小技術鴻溝。


綠色經濟是新型全球化必不可少的條件。過去的100年來,有工業革命造成的環境污染,導致絕大部分發展中國家所面臨的環境壓力不斷升級。環境是發展的基礎,沒有良好的環境,經濟也無法得以繁榮。然而發展也是環境保護的前提條件,只有經濟發展社會進步了才能更有效的保護環境。


新型全球化必須要建立在可持續框架的前提之下,各國發展必須要均衡考慮經濟發展、減少貧困與環境保護,推動綠色經濟發展,達到經濟與環境雙贏。


那麼如何實現人們所期待的新型全球化呢?不同的人肯定有不同的答案。但是有一個條件是肯定的,那就是我們必須要反對保護主義和孤立主義,實現開發包容。無論是大國還是小國啊,大型跨國企業還是中小型企業,都應該加入進來,共享新型全球化的益處。


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